Benjamin Disraeli (Sybil, or the Two Nations, 1845): "Two nations; between whom there is no intercourse and no sympathy; who are as ignorant of each other's habits, thoughts, and feelings, as if they were dwellers in different zones, or inhabitants of different planets; who are formed by a different breeding, are fed by a different food, are ordered by different manners, and are not governed by the same laws . . . . THE RICH AND THE POOR".
Factory Act (1832) improved conditions for children working in factories:
- no child workers under nine years of age
- employers must have an age certificate for their child workers
- children of 9-13 years to work no more than nine hours a day
- children of 13-18 years to work no more than 12 hours a day
- children are not to work at night
- two hours schooling each day for children
- four factory inspectors appointed to enforce the law
Mines Act (1842) prohibited all females and boys under ten years old from working underground in coal mines.
Ten Hours Act (1847) restricted the working hours of women and young persons (13-18) in textile mills to 10 hours per day.
Bank Holidays Act (1871) established the first bank holidays in the United Kingdom.