Charlemagne – Pelagius (Pelayo) – Alfonso II – Sancho III – Fernán González – Fernando I – Al-Mansur – Wilfred the Hairy – Borrell II
2.- Listen and choose the correct answer:
1. Who was Charlemagne?
a. King of the Franks.
b. King of the Germans.
c. King of the Goths.
2. Was Charlemagne able to cross the Ebro and take control of Zaragoza, Huesca and Tortosa?
a. He crossed the Ebro but was only able to take Tortosa.
3. What was the name of the heavily fortified protective strip created by the Franks along the Pyrenees?
a. Marca Franca.
b. Marca Hispanica.
c. Marca Pirenaica.
4. Who governed the counties on the southern border of the Frankish kingdom?
a. The king.
b. The Church.
5. What happened with the present-day territories of Navarra, Aragon and Catalonia after the death of Charlemagne?
a. They were conquered by the king of Leon.
b. They were conquered by Muslims.
c. They became independent from Frankish rule.
3.- Listen and identify the speaker: Alfonso III, Al-Mansur, Ferdinand I or Fernán González.
4.- Complete the sentences. Then, listen and check.
Centres of resistance
During the 8th century, an army of Muslims invaded the Peninsula. Two mountainous regions around the ____________________ and the Cantabrian Mountains resisted invasion.
The Christian kingdoms and counties began the ____________________ of the land occupied by the Muslims.
In Asturias, a group of Hispano-____________________ nobles and families resisted the Muslims and refused to pay ____________________ to them. This led to the creation of the Kingdom of ____________________, which after expanding west (Galicia), east (Cantabria) and south, became the Kingdom of ____________________.
The Pyrenean region
The counties that formed the Marca ____________________ in the Pyrenees were controlled by the ____________________ Empire. The Frankish emperor chose the nobles (counts and marquis) who ruled the territories. The counties gained independence from Frankish rule and became the counties of Aragón, the Catalan counties and the Kingdom of ____________________, later known as Navarre.
Progress and setbacks of the reconquest
While the Caliphate of Al-Andalus was breaking down, the Christian kingdoms continued to expand during the 11th century. They reached the ____________________ Valley in the west and the ____________________ Valley in the east.
The Kingdoms of Castile and León, Aragón and Navarre and the Catalan counties grew stronger, but their 12th-century advances were blocked by the Almoravids and ____________________.
5.- Listen and say which type of resettlement (free resettlement or concejiles resettlement) each statement or date refers to:
- The king granted lands to free peasants:
- The settlers owned allodia and founded villages with pastures, water and forests held collectively:
- The monarchs granted privileges to encourage the settlement of cities:
- They were organized collectively by the monarchs in areas on the border that suffered continued attacks:
- They were also refered to as presura or aprisio:
- 9th and 10th centuries:
- 11th and 12th centuries:
6.- Use the following words to complete the text:
Alfonso – Almoravids – Cantar – Cid – collaboration – exile – exile – minstrels – musulmanes – Sidi – Valencia – Vivar – Zaragoza
Rodrigo Díaz de ___________ was an 11th-century Castilian knight.
He was educated at the court and became a vassal to ___________VI of Castile and León.
His relationships with the monarchs were difficult and alternated between stages of ___________and stages of ___________from the kingdom.
During one period of ___________ from Castile, Rodrigo created a small armed retinue that followed his orders.
He spent time serving the king of ___________ and the ___________ gave him the name ___________ (lord), which is probably where his nickname ___________ comes from.
Later on, he fought against the ___________ and besieged the city of Valencia, where he established a Christian taifa.
The character of El Cid fascinated the Castilians and ___________sang of his exploits in the ___________del Mio Cid.
7.- Complete the concept map with the names of the counties and kingdoms:
Kingdom of Navarre – Kingdom of Castile – Catalan Counties – Marca Hispanica – Kingdom of León – Kingdom of Aragón